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  • #76
    Originally posted by primer View Post

    You have to hand it to the Polynesian sailors.
    A big question has always been: did Pasifika people reach South America, and was there any co-mingling of those populations? The DNA of chicken bones and the mere presence of the kumara – a South American native – in early Polynesian sites, indicate that they did make it that far.
    Cook took some to South America. Their DNA shows up in Brazil. Here I live in Texas, but my DNA matches them. I figure from the Polynesians.

    Two ancient human genomes reveal Polynesian ancestry among the indigenous Botocudos of Brazil

    Understanding the peopling of the Americas remains an important and challenging question. Here, we present 14C dates, and morphological, isotopic and genomic sequence data from two human skulls from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, part of one of the indigenous groups known as ‘Botocudos’. We find that their genomic ancestry is Polynesian, with no detectable Native American component. Radiocarbon analysis of the skulls shows that the individuals had died prior to the beginning of the 19th century. Our findings could either represent genomic evidence of Polynesians reaching South America during their Pacific expansion, or European-mediated transport.

    Several scenarios have been previously proposed that are of potential relevance for explaining our result that two Botocudo individuals have Polynesian ancestry for both the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes [1]: the Polynesia–Peru slave trade [4], the Madagascar–Brazil slave trade, voyaging on European ships either as crew, passengers, or stowaways, and Polynesian voyaging. Regardless, the scenario must necessarily invoke a certain number of Polynesian migrants — presumably more than two, as we detected Polynesian ancestry in two out of 35 Botocudo individuals in the Museu Nacional collection. A detailed investigation of these possibilities can be found in the Supplemental information. The 1862–1864 AD Peru–Polynesia slave trade can be excluded, given that the 14C calibrated dates for the skulls predate the beginning of this trade. The Madagascar–Brazil slave trade is of relevance, as Madagascar is known to have been peopled by Southeast Asians [5]. However, we can further exclude this hypothesis as recent genomic data have demonstrated that the Malagasy ancestors admixed with African populations prior to the slave trade [5], and no such ancestry is detected in our Botocudo sample (Supplemental information). Furthermore, Madagascar was peopled by Southeast Asian and not Polynesian populations.
    While Fernão de Magalhães (Magellan) first spotted some seemingly uninhabited Polynesian islands in 1521 AD, the lack of precise navigational techniques [6], as well as war between European nations, meant that many of those islands were not visited by Europeans again for at least another 200 years. Therefore, trade involving Euroamerican ships in the Pacific only began after 1760 AD [7]. By 1760 AD, Bot15 and Bot17 were already deceased with a probability of 0.92 and 0.81, respectively (Supplemental information), making this scenario unlikely. Although improbable also because it would involve both individuals making it to the interior of Brazil, we cannot exclude this scenario.
    Polynesian ancestors originated from East Asia and on their migration eastwards interacted with and admixed with local New Guineans before colonizing the Pacific. In recent years, evidence has continued to accumulate in favor of a Polynesian and South American contact [8], although the issue has remained mired in controversy (e.g., [9]). It has been established that the Polynesian Pacific expansion from Southeast Asia covered distances of thousands of kilometers, reaching New Zealand, Hawaii and Easter Island — an area approximately the size of North America — between ca. 1200 and 1300 AD [10]. It is hard to explain how the first possible genomic evidence of such Polynesian contact with South America would be found in Brazil rather than on the west coast of South America, yet we cannot exclude this scenario either.
    Whether brought by Europeans or the result of the Polynesian expansion, the fact remains that some Brazilian Botocudos carried distinctive Polynesian genetic signatures. We hope that further sampling will provide a more definitive answer to this intriguing finding.


    • #77
      Ancient DNA Is Rewriting Human (and Neanderthal) History

      The genomes of the long dead are turning up all sorts of unexpected and controversial findings.

      Geneticist David Reich used to study the living, but now he studies the dead.

      The precipitating event came in the form of 40,000-year-old Neanderthal bones found in a Croatian cave. So well-preserved were the bones that they yielded enough DNA for sequencing, and it became Reich’s job in 2007 to analyze the DNA for signs that Neanderthals interbred with humans—a idea he was “deeply suspicious” of at the time.

      To his surprise, the DNA revealed that humans and Neanderthals did interbreed in their time together in Europe. Possibly even more than once. Today, surprisingly, the people carrying the most Neanderthal DNA are not in Europe but in East Asia—likely due to the patterns of ancient human migration in Eurasia in the thousands of years after Neanderthals died out. All this painted a complicated but dynamic picture of human prehistory. Since the very beginning of our species, humans have been on the move; at times they replaced and at other times they mixed with the local population, first hominids like Neanderthals and later other humans.

      The Viking Trail through Vestfold

      Vestfold is the county in Norway boasting the most traces of our proud Viking heritage. The region between Mølen in the south and Borre in the north has many places worth visiting. Over a distance of about 60 kilometres (40 miles) you will discover large, significant burial mounds, remains of Norway’s first town and where the most important finds from the Viking Age were made. Vestfold even has its own Viking ships, both original and replicas.


      • #78
        So, I was looking at my brother's Y DNA matches, and stumbled across this. Pretty cool!
        Russian Empire - Y-DNA Classic Chart

        For genealogy within the most recent fifteen generations, STR markers help define paternal lineages. Y-DNA STR markers change (mutate) often enough that most men who share the same STR results also share a recent paternal lineage. This page displays Y-Chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) STR results for the project. It uses the classic format. The columns display each project member's kit number, paternal ancestry information according to project settings, the paternal tree branch (haplogroup), and actual STR marker results. The color coding of STR marker names is explained here. In the haplogroups column, haplogroups in green are confirmed by SNP testing. Haplogroups in red are predicted. You may learn more about Y-DNA STRs on the Understanding Y-DNA STRs learning page.


        • #79
          The Golden State Killer Is Tracked Through a Thicket of DNA, and Experts Shudder

          The arrest of a suspect has set off alarms among some scientists and ethicists worried that consumer DNA may be widely accessed by law enforcement.

          Archaeologists find 550-year-old site of mass child sacrifice in Peru

          Archaeologists in northern Peru say they have found evidence of what could be the world's largest single case of child sacrifice.

          The pre-Columbian burial site, known as Las Llamas, contains the skeletons of 140 children who were ages 5 to 14 when they were ritually sacrificed about 550 years ago, experts who led the excavation said Friday.

          Quilter is heading a team of scientists who will analyze DNA samples from the children's remains to see if they were related and figure out which areas of the Chimu empire the sacrificed youth came from.

          Several ancient cultures in the Americas practiced human sacrifice including the Mayans, Aztecs and Incas, who conquered the Chimu empire in the late 15th century. But the mass sacrifice of children is something that has rarely been documented.


          • #80
            regarding the Golden state killer DNA case, I finally read the site they used to identify the guy was GEDdna or some similar name...none of the big DNA testing groups, rather a site that collects results from other testing labs like Ancestry, 23andme, etc. I also read that the cops thru DNA had pegged the wrong guy in 2017 ......and that didn't hold up in the light of day. But they guy they have now, matched not only the DNA but the fact he was in the right place at the right times and had background that fit the killer.


            • #81
              Originally posted by commanding View Post
              regarding the Golden state killer DNA case, I finally read the site they used to identify the guy was GEDdna or some similar name...none of the big DNA testing groups, rather a site that collects results from other testing labs like Ancestry, 23andme, etc. I also read that the cops thru DNA had pegged the wrong guy in 2017 ......and that didn't hold up in the light of day. But they guy they have now, matched not only the DNA but the fact he was in the right place at the right times and had background that fit the killer.
              Yes, Gedmatch dot com. Anyone can upload their DNA to Gedmatch, and it will match you to others (who have also uploaded their DNA, whose DNA you match). It's a really good, neat site. i.e. anyone who has their DNA tested at ancestry, 23 and me, ftdna, can upload their DNA to Gedmatch. A person just downloads their DNA files to their compter, then make an account and upload DNA files to Gedmatch. & it's free.

              It's the closest thing to one site for DNA testing. If someone has their DNA tested at ftdna, then they aren't going to match anyone who had their DNA tested at 23 and me, or ancestry, or some other site (other than ftdna), etc. So by uploading to Gedmatch a person can match other persons who didn't have their dna tested at the same place.


              • #82
                GDPR – It’s a Train and It’s a Comin’

                In the recent article about Oxford Ancestors shuttering, I briefly mentioned GDPR. I’d like to talk a little more about this today, because you’re going to hear about it, and I’d rather you hear about it from me than from a sky-is-falling perspective.
                It might be rainy and there is definitely some thunder and the ground may shake a little, but the sky is not exactly falling. The storm probably isn’t going to be pleasant, however, but we’ll get through it because we have no other choice. And there is life after GDPR, although in the genetic genealogy space, it may look a little different.
                And yes, one way or another, it will affect you.
                What is GDPR?
                GDPR, which is short for General Data Protection Regulation, is a European, meaning both EU and UK, regulation(s) by which the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission intend to strengthen and unify data protection for all individuals within the European Union (EU). It also addresses the export of personal data outside the EU/UK and processing of data of residents of the EU/UK by non-EU/UK companies.
                There are actually two similar, but somewhat different regulations, one for the UK and one for the EU’s 28 member states, but the regulations are collectively referred to as the GDPR regulation.
                Ok, so far so good.
                The regulations are directly enforceable and do not require any individual member government to pass additional legislation.
                GDPR was adopted on April 27, 2016, but little notice was taken until the last few months, especially outside of Europe, when the hefty fines drew attention to the enforcement date of May 25, 2018, now just around the corner.
                Those hefty fines can range from a written warning for non-intentional noncompliance to a fine of 20 million Euro or up to 4% of the annual worldwide turnover of the preceding financial year, whichever is GREATER. Yea, that’s pretty jaw-dropping.
                So, GDPR has teeth and is nothing to be ignored.


                More at link...has to do with DNA


                • #83
                  Tim Janzen – Genetic Genealogy Interview


                  Rebekah: How long have you been actively involved in genealogy, and how did you become interested in the field?
                  Tim: I started getting interested in genealogy when I was about 14 and I was definitely a fairly serious genealogist by the time I was 16. My grandfather, Paul Youngman, was a major influence on my life. He wrote two books about our family history. One of these books chronicled the life of his father, Charles L. Youngman, who was a doctor in the small town of Harveyville, Kansas. The other book traced a portion of the lineage of his mother, Anna Brown Armstrong, whose ancestry is of interest at least in part because she descends from at least two people who were kidnapped by Indians as children and were adopted into the Wyandot Indian tribe. My grandfather’s first cousin, Ralph Armstrong, was also a very serious genealogist and was an inspiration to me. My father’s ancestry is almost entirely Low German Mennonite, so I began researching his ancestry when I was in high school as well. Alan Peters helped spark my interest in Mennonite genealogy in a very broad way. Alan has been very influential in almost all aspects of Mennonite genealogy, particularly in the development of the Mennonite genealogy database known as the GRANDMA database. Alan kindly allowed me to visit him in California twice when I was in college and medical school. In 1996, my wife and I took a Mennonite tour to Ukraine to visit the villages where my father’s ancestors had lived. This trip also had a profound impact on me.

                  Rebekah: At what point did you decide to become involved in genetic genealogy?
                  Tim: I attended the National Genealogical Society convention in Portland, Oregon in 2001. At that time, Scott Woodward and his associates at the BYU Center for Molecular Genealogy were collecting blood samples so that they could do DNA testing for genealogical purposes. The project sounded very interesting, and so I gave a blood sample to Scott Woodward, as well as a GEDCOM file that included my known ancestors. The Sorenson Molecular Genealogy Foundation was formed shortly after that in 2002. In 2004, Amelia Reimer started the Mennonite DNA project at Family Tree DNA. I became actively involved in that project, because I saw the potential for Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA testing to help solve Mennonite genealogical research questions. I then remembered that I had been tested by the SMGF and subsequently began extracting Mennonite Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA results from the SMGF database. In December of 2005, I realized the potential that autosomal DNA testing held for Mennonite genealogy and began actively collecting Mennonite samples for the SMGF. My efforts, along with others who were also involved, led to the collection of DNA samples from about 2000 Mennonites that were donated to the SMGF. The sale of the SMGF to forced me to change my focus to other companies such as 23andMe and FTDNA that are also doing autosomal DNA testing.


                  • #84
                    Genomic and Strontium Isotope Variation Reveal Immigration Patterns in a Viking Age Town



                    A case study reveals mobility between population clusters within the Viking world

                    Archaeology, osteology, genetics, and isotopes highlight nuanced migration patterns
                    Local, regional, and long-distance immigrants are identified in the town of Sigtuna
                    We report 23 new ancient human genomes from the 10th to the 12th century CE Sweden


                    • #85
                      I thought this was pretty amazing!

                      A Neanderthal Perspective on Human Origins with Svante Pääbo - 2018


                      • #86

                        Hitchhikers guide to the galaxy prophesied it.


                        • #87
                          Ancient migration transformed Spain's DNA
                          I doubt if post this in the Archeology thread, but finally I found this thread.

                          A migration from Central Europe transformed the genetic make-up of people in Spain during the Bronze Age, a study reveals.
                          DNA evidence shows the migrants streamed over the Pyrenees, replacing existing male lineages across the region within a space of 400 years.
                          It remains unclear whether violence played a role or whether a male-centric social structure was more important.
                          The result comes from the most extensive study of its kind.