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  • #46
    Originally posted by Cowboy's daughter View Post

    Good Lord, that's amazing, commanding! History is really interesting!
    photos of the dug and very worn 10 kopeks from Russia, you can see the date clearly....I found on 11 August 1975 at a bottle dump north of downtown Ft. Worth.

    and the two headed eagle side:


    • #47
      Ohhh, that's a great find!


      • #48
        People if you are interested in these tests they are now on sale until tomorrow, 39$ at myheritage, 59$ at ancestry and familytreedna.
        They were many hundreds years ago

        And no i dont get commission


        • #49
          Archaeological dig unearths one of the earliest slave remains in Delaware

          Michael E. Ruane The Washington Post

          8:32 a.m. Tuesday, Dec. 5, 2017 News

          The blow to the head of the man in grave 10 was so severe that it chipped off a bone near his right eyebrow, fractured part of his face, and probably helped to kill him.

          He was about 35 years old and likely a slave. He had grooves in his front teeth where he had clenched his clay pipe as he worked, and evidence in his spine that he was engaged in hard labor.

          It's not known exactly what landed him in a hexagonal coffin in the sandy soil north of Delaware's Rehoboth Bay 300 years ago: An assault, or an accident?

          But fragments of his story, along with those of 10 others buried near him, have emerged from an archaeological dig at a long-vanished 17th century plantation called Avery's Rest in Sussex County.
          The archaeologists eventually found eleven graves containing the well-preserved skeletons of seven men, two women, and two children of undetermined sex, according to a report produced by the project last summer.

          Eight of occupants were of European ancestry, and, except for one, were buried in a row.

          Study of the bones showed that three were of African ancestry, two men and the 5-year-old. They were buried near the others but in a separate section, according to a diagram of the burials and the report.


          • #50
            Irish DNA map reveals history's imprint


            Scientists have unveiled a detailed genetic map of Ireland, revealing subtle DNA differences that may reflect historic events.

            In their sample of the Irish population, the researchers identified 10 genetic groupings - clusters - that roughly mirror ancient boundaries.

            The results also suggest the Vikings had a greater impact on the Irish gene pool than previously supposed.

            The findings are published in the journal Scientific Reports.

            A team of Irish, British and American researchers analysed data from 194 Irish individuals with four generations of ancestry tied to specific regions on the island.

            This allowed the scientists to work out the population structure that existed prior to the increased movement of people in recent decades.

            Co-author Dr Gianpiero Cavalleri, from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, told BBC News that the differences between the different Irish groups were "really subtle".

            He told BBC News: "We're only picking them up now because, first of all, the data sets are getting really big." The other reason, he said, was because of "really clever analytical approaches to pick out these very slight differences that generate the clusters".


            • #51
              Nordic & Baltic Regional DNA Project

     One Family Project

              The One Family One World Project is a partnership between Living DNA and Eupedia initiated in 2017. The project aims to map the regional genetic variations of the world with a great level of detail and accuracy in order to improve our understanding of both recent and ancient migrations and see how humans are all connected with one another as one big family.

              Genetic variations within Nordic & Baltic countries

              Scandinavian people are less homogeneous genetically than is generally believed. Various studies have shown that the frequency of Y-DNA haplogroups (ancestral paternal lineages) varied considerably between regions and similar patterns are reflected between Scandinavian dialects.


              • #52
                Uau, love this topic!


                • #53
                  from June 2015, there may be something more recent
                  Yamnaya, Light Skinned, Brown Eyed….Ancestors???

                  Late last fall, I reported that scientists had discovered a European ghost population. This group of people then referred to as the ANE, Ancient Northern Europeans, was a previously unknown population from the north that had mixed into the known European populations, the Hunter-Gatherers and the farmers from the Middle East, the Neolithic.
                  That discovery came as a result of the full genome sequencing of a few ancient specimens, including one from the Altai.
                  Recently, several papers have been published as a result of ongoing sequencing efforts of another 200 or so ancient specimens. As a result, scientists now believe that this ghost population has been identified as the Yamnaya and that they began a mass migration in different directions, including Europe, about 5,000 years ago. Along with their light skin and brown eyes, they brought along with them their gene(s) for lactose tolerance. So, if you have European heritage and are lactose tolerant, then maybe you can thank your Yamnaya ancestors.

                  The Yamna culture was primarily nomadic and was found in Russia in the Ural Region, the Pontic Steppe, dating to the 36th-23rd century BC. It is also known as the Pit Grave Culture, the Ochre Grave Culture and feeds into the Corded Ware Culture.


                  • #54
                    from Feb. 2017
                    Thousands of horsemen may have swept into Bronze Age Europe, transforming the local population

           Call it an ancient thousand man march. Early Bronze Age men from the vast grasslands of the Eurasian steppe swept into Europe on horseback about 5000 years ago—and may have left most women behind. This mostly male migration may have persisted for several generations, sending men into the arms of European women who interbred with them, and leaving a lasting impact on the genomes of living Europeans.
                    “It looks like males migrating in war, with horses and wagons,” says lead author and population geneticist Mattias Jakobsson of Uppsala University in Sweden.
                    Europeans are the descendants of at least three major migrations of prehistoric people. First, a group of hunter-gatherers arrived in Europe about 37,000 years ago. Then, farmers began migrating from Anatolia (a region including present-day Turkey) into Europe 9000 years ago, but they initially didn’t intermingle much with the local hunter-gatherers because they brought their own families with them. Finally, 5000 to 4800 years ago, nomadic herders known as the Yamnaya swept into Europe. They were an early Bronze Age culture that came from the grasslands, or steppes, of modern-day Russia and Ukraine, bringing with them metallurgy and animal herding skills and, possibly, Proto-Indo-European, the mysterious ancestral tongue from which all of today’s 400 Indo-European languages spring. They immediately interbred with local Europeans, who were descendants of both the farmers and hunter-gatherers. Within a few hundred years, the Yamnaya contributed to at least half of central Europeans’ genetic ancestry.

                    more at link...


                    • #55
                      Yamna Culture (c. 3500-2500 BCE)

                      Quick Facts

                      • Also known as the Yamnaya Culture, Pit Grave Culture or Ochre Grave Culture.
                      • Generally considered by linguists as the homeland of the Proto-Indo-European language.
                      • Probably originated between the Lower Don, the Lower Volga and North Caucasus during the Chalcolithic, around what became the Novotitorovka culture (3300-2700 BCE) within the Yamna culture.
                      • Highly mobile steppe culture of pastoral nomads relying heavily on cattle (dairy farming). Sheep were also kept for their wool. Hunting, fishing and sporadic agriculture was practiced near rivers.
                      • First culture (along with Maykop) to make regular use of ox-drawn wheeled carts. Metal artefacts (tools, axes, tanged daggers) were mostly made of copper, with some arsenical bronze. Domesticated horses used as pack animal and ridden to manage cattle herds.
                      • Coarse, flat-bottomed, egg-shaped pottery decorated with comb stamps and cord impressions.
                      • The dead were inhumed in pit graves inside kurgans (burial mounds). Bodies were placed in a supine position with bent knees and covered in ochre. Wagons/carts and sacrificed animals (cattle, horse, sheep) were present in graves, a trait typical of later Indo-European cultures.
                      Who were the Yamna people genetically?

                      Genetic analysis of Yamnayan genomes conducted by Allentoft (2015) and Haak et al. (2015) revealed that Yamnayans were a blend of three ancestral populations. The dominant element (55 to 85%) was the Mesolithic Eastern Hunter-Gatherer (EHG), associated with Y-haplogroups R1a and R1b. Then came the Caucasian Hunter-Gatherer (CHG) admixture, making up about 15-25% of their genomes. This admixture is mainly associated with Y-haplogroup J, and indeed one J* sample was found in Mesolithic Russia. It has been confirmed by ancient DNA that J2b was found among Neolithic farmers from East Transcaucasia (in this case, northwest Iran), and there is convincing evidence that these J2b farmers crossed the Caucasus to settle in the Volga-Ural region during the Early Neolithic. Thirdly, there is an increasing amount of evidence that some R1b tribes crossed from the Steppe to the East Transcaucasia. They would have returned to the Steppe with copper metallurgy during the Khvalynsk culture (5000-3800 BCE), which is ancestral to Yamna. The third admixture was the Western Hunter-Gatherer (WHG), representing about 6% of Yamna genomes, although a few samples lacked it entirely. The WHG admixture is derived from Mesolithic Western Europeans descended from Late Cro-Magnons (Gravettian) and is mainly linked with Y-haplogroup I, and to a lower extent also C1a2 and F.
                      more at link...


                      • #56
                        Tested through MyHeritage. I am 80.0% North and West European, 19.0% Scandinavian, 1.0% Nigerian. = Dutch.


                        • #57

                          DNA history: Opening a tomb of four great warriors in Italy

                          We're in the final stages of opening a tomb in Southern Italy with four famous Norman mercenary brothers. Now we need help to finish!

                          The Hauteville family was one of the greatest mercenary families in history, and probably the most successfull one. Tancred of Hauteville together with 9 sons all went to Italy, first as mercenaries for Lombard lords in Southern Italy, then they took on themselves to drive the Muslims out of Sicily. After more than 30 years of fighting out of their stronghold in Melfi, the Hauteville family became so powerful in Southern Italy that they not only conquered Sicily, but also the mainland up to Napoli and beoynd. Robert Guiscard, one of the brothers in the tomb, and his younger brother King Roger I are the most famous of the brothers. The Hauteville's created the Kingdom of Sicilia and Apulia which lasted for close to 800 years until Garibaldi's unification of Italy in the 19th century.
                          Our quest is to find out more about the mythical father of these brothers by looking at the DNA and bones of four of the brothers in a tomb in the Abbey of the Santissima Trinità in Venosa, Italy. The father Tancred came from the western part of Normandy, where many Norwegian Vikings settled. Our goal is to be able to trace his family origins and learn more about him and his eldest sons. We'll be using some of the most advanced DNA technology in the world, in the DNA laboratory at the Centre for Geogenetics in Copenhagen, Denmark. And we will also conduct isotype analysis and C13 and C14 analysis. On the anatomy side in our team is Professor Emeritus Per Holck from the University of Oslo, who has been very valuable in previous projects. And we are working closely with the local authorities in Basilicata. In total we have spent 7 years preparing for the opening of the tomb.
                          Now, the date is set: Friday January 26th, 2018. But we have run out of money, as there hasn't been much funding in this project from the start. All costs this far has been voluntarily, expenses out of our own pockets, idealists and nerds for history as we are. We need to pay workers in the abbey and insurance costs to make sure all goes well on this day, and we need to pay for a necessary georadar survey which the local authorities have conducted. The budget is not a big one for a project of this size, but now we need about 50.000 Norwegian kroners, around 5.150 Euros, to see this through. The costs of the DNA, isotope, C13 and C14 analysis will be covered by our collaborators in Denmark and in Norway.
                          For photos of the tomb and a little bit more information on the Normans, see this link: (copy/paste)

                          So we hope you will help us seeing this project through. The day of the opening will be exciting in it self, but also the DNA lab work in the following months. Wish us luck, and thank you!

                          Risks and challenges

                          For some reason someone put cement in the tomb the last time it was opened, many decades ago. So we're not exactly sure how it looks inside or of the state of the skeleton material. This will unfold on the day of the opening, on Friday January 26th.


                          • #58
                            Explico fund dot org


                            Explico-Historical Research Foundation


                            • #59
                              DNA links Native Americans with Europeans


                              A Danish-led international research team has mapped the hitherto oldest genome of an anatomically modern human: the genome of a boy buried at Mal’ta near Lake Baikal in south-central Siberia some 24,000 years ago.

                              Surprisingly, the genetic material reveals that the boy was European, which means that a European culture reached all the way east to Lake Baikal.

                              The really sensational news, however, is that a large proportion (about a third) of all living Native Americans are descendants of the Mal’ta people. In other words, Native Americans have partly European ancestry.

                              ”This is incredibly surprising. At first I didn’t believe it,” says team leader Professor Eske Willerslev of the University of Copenhagen.

                              First Scandinavians came from north and south
                              January 12, 2018 - 06:20
                              Scandinavia has been a melting pot of cultures ever since the first people arrived after the last ice age, new DNA analyses show


                              People started settling in Scandinavia and calling it home soon after the region emerged out of the icy grip of the last ice age around 12,000 years ago. Archaeological finds show that people lived in the area 11,700 years ago. But researchers have long wondered who these settlers were, and where they had come from.

                              Many of the tools they left behind suggested that the first Scandinavians came from the southwest, and migrated northward along Norway’s long and winding coast.

                              But that was not the whole story.

                              Other tools, suspiciously similar to technology from the east, were discovered in northern Norway. This left archaeologists wondering whether the first Scandinavians had contact with different groups, or whether they had in fact come from the east, in what is today Russia.

                              A new study of Mesolithic – or Stone Age – DNA suggests the latter.

                              “The genetic patterns show how Scandinavia was colonised after the ice age, both by a migration from south west Europe, directly up to Scandinavia, and soon after by a migration from what is today Russia, which went north of the ice cap and down along the Atlantic coast,” says co-author Professor Mattias Jakobsson, a geneticist from Uppsala University, Sweden, speaking to

                              The results are published in the scientific journal PLOS Biology.


                              • #60
                                Student cracks DNA code to take home $10,000 worth of bitcoin


                                At the 2015 meeting of the World Economic Forum, European Bioinformatics Institute researcher Nick Goldman set a challenge with a three-year time limit: Decode a DNA sequence in order to gain access to a key that would unlock a digital wallet. With the deadline coming up on Monday, January 29, it seemed that no one would claim the prize — until Goldman sent out a reminder on Twitter.

                                The tweet captured the attention Sander Wuyts, a 26-year-old Ph.D. student studying at the University of Antwerp. He requested one of the vials of DNA that Goldman had handed out at the WEF meeting, and once he received it, he set about cracking the code.

                                Working alongside his colleagues, the computational microbiology student used the genome sequencing tools available via his university to make a play for the prize, according to Motherboard.
                                The process Goldman used to encode the information as a DNA file saw him rewrite a text document in base-3. Using zeroes, ones, and twos, he could map the data to the four nucleobases: Guanine, adenine, cytosine, and thymine.
                                Nine files were encoded, encrypted with a keystream — a random series of characters intended to keep the plaintext message hidden — that was supplied alongside the fragments. When Wuyts successfully decoded the message, he was presented with the key to unlock the digital wallet.

                                Wuyts will apparently use some of his winnings to thank the colleagues that helped him and will pour the rest back into his research. Meanwhile, the fact that the key was successfully decoded demonstrates how DNA storage might be used to great effect. According to Goldman, it’s a particularly safe way to store keys since not everyone has access to sequencing software — and since it takes a matter of days to read the data, it can protect investors against their tendency to sell in a panic.